UIHistories Project: A History of the University of Illinois by Kalev Leetaru
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Repository: UIHistories Project: Board of Trustees Minutes - 1878 [PAGE 282]

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pectinacea, native, L a p h a m . var. spectabilis, native, L a p h a m . FESTUCA, Fescue Grass. tenella, native, L a p h a m ; Champaign county. ovina, Sheep's Fescue, cultivated from northward. " I t forms an excellent p a s t u r a g e for s h e e p . ' ' —Flint elatior Taller or Meadow Fescue, naturalized from Europe, Cook county, Babcock. " I t is a nutritive and productive grass, growing naturally in shady wood and moist stiff soils."—Flint " O n e of o u r best grasses and producing a large bulk of very nutritious grass highly relished by c a t t l e ; does not a t t a i n its full growth u n t i l three years from the time of sowing."—Gibson, of New Y o r k Mills. " A valuable grass,'' -Darlington. n u t a n s , native, L a p h a m ; Cook county, Babcock; Champaign county. BROMUS, Brame Grass. secalinus, Cheat or Chess, adventive from Europe, L a p h a m ; Cook county, Babcock. kalmii, Wild Chess, native, L a p h a m ; Cook county, Babcock. ciliatus, L. racemosus, L. UNIOLA, Spike Horse. latifolia, native, L a p h a m . PHRAGMITES, Reed Grass. communis, native, L a p h a m ; Cook county, Babcock. Said to be the largest grass in the United States. Champaign county. ARUNDINARIA, Cane. macrosperma, Large Cane, native, L a p h a m . tecta, Small Cane, Wabash county, Ridgeway. The3e two species of cane are not a p p a r e n t l y distinguished in t h e accounts of early settlers, nor by early botanists; b u t one or t h e other or both were common in southern Illinois in t h e early day. Lapham says of the first: " S o u t h e r n Illinois and Indiana, extending u p t h e Ohio river to the falls at New A l b a n y . " Gray, in his earlier edition of t h e Manual, recognizes but one species with a variation in the small cane. In the later edition he makes t h e two species, and seems t o confine t h e larger species t o t h e s o u t h e r n region below Illinois. Governor Reynolds, in his Pioneer History, gives the following: ' A l l along the Ohio river and u p t h e Mississippi to Muddy river, and sometimes higher, t h e cane grew so thick and strong t h a t m a n or beast could scarcely p e n e t r a t e it. These were called brakes, and were so thick and m a t t e d together t h a t deer, buffalo, horses and other animals were completely housed and sheltered from the storms. H u n t e r s say t h e y have often heard buffaloes, in t h e winter, bellowing in these canebrakes as if it were s u m m e r in the p r a i r i e s . " In Smith county, Tennessee, to-day, as in Illinois seventy-five years ago, canebrakes are used as winter p a s t u r e s . " W i t h p r o p e r care we can again soon have cane for our cattle to live upon in t h e winter; and it is a nutritious food for t h e m . The destruction is caused by t h e stock eating u p t h e young, tender, sweet stalks t h a t come u p in t h e spring. But if this y o u n g cane is k e p t free from t h e depredations of stock until winter, it t h e n becomes hard and t h e stock will only eat off t h e rich foliage, which p u t s o u t again n e x t spring. This I know by experience. I have a small c a n e b r a k e made in this way, and a neighbor has about one hundred acres cane raised in the same m a n n e r . " — R e s o u r c e s of Tennessee, p . 819. LEPTURUS. paniculatus, native, L a p h a m ; Mead. LOLIUM, Darnel. perenne Common Da:*nel, Ray or Rye Grass, cultivated from Europe, of doubtful value. italicum, cultivated from E u r o p e . Said to e n d u r e t h e climate of Australia well TRITICUM, Wheat. repens, Couch, Quitch or Quick Grass, native, Vasey; Cook county, Babcock. caninum, Armed Wheat Grass, naturalized from Europe, Vasey. vulgare, Common Wheat, cultivated from the old world, where it is found in t h e remains of the Lake Dwellings. Now grown nearly all over the world, b u t not so far north as rye, oats and barley, which are harder. Its production in t h e United States and Illinois is Year. 1850 1860 1870 1870 Production. Wheat, bushels United States. 100,485,944 173,104,924 112,549,733 175,195,893 Illinois. 9,414,575 23,837,023 10,133,207 19,995,198


Illinois lead all other states in Wheat Production. Winter wheat was r e p o r t e d as grown in every c o u n t y except Stark. Spring wheat was reported from 80;counties, and 22 (all s o u t h e r n counties) reported n o n e . The winter wheat is mostly grown south of Springfield. St. Clair, Madison, P i k e and Randolph produced the g r e a t e s t aggregate yield. The acerage of wheat in Illinois since 1870, is reported to t h e auditor as follows: