UIHistories Project: A History of the University of Illinois by Kalev Leetaru
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, earliest of its g-enus to spring- u p in t h e southern Illinois prairies. I t is said to foe Blower in growth t h a n other species. porcina. Brown Hickory or Pig Nut Hickory, native, Lapham. Noted in fourteen counties by t h e geological surveys. Most common it would seem in t h e south, " T h e wood is considered by m a n y t h e strongest and t o u g h e s t of t h e h i c k o r i e s . " —Bryant. A large t r e e . amara*, Bitter Nut or Swamp Hickory, native, L a p h a m . The n u t has a softer shell t h a n t h e last, and t h e wood is less valuable. Noted in geological survey as occurring-in several counties, nearly all of which are n o r t h e r n .


QUEREUS, Oak robur, European or JRnplish Oak. Planted from E u r o p e for o r n a m e n t only, for which its habit of holding its leaves green is said to give it a preference, [Meehan]. alba, White Oak, native, Lapham. Noted in 28 counties by t h e nreological reports and probably found in g r e a t e r or less quantity (n every county, although the oldei trees are now termed " s l a u g h t e r e d . " Mr. Ridgeway m e a s u r e d .near Mt. Carmel, 6 white oaks t h a t averaged 132 feet in height, 60feet of t r u n k and YiY% in girth. Prof. Swallow, in Howard county, Mo., measured one 100 feet high and 26 in circumference. " W h e r e v e r strength, compactness and durability are required, it is preferred to t h a t of any other tree."-—Bryant. obtusiloba, Post Oak, Rough or Box White Oak, native, L a p h a m . Mentioned in t h i r teen counties, all southern, by t h e geological survey. It makes b u t a small t r e e in southern Illinois, b u t is larger and valuable in A r k a n s a s and other southern s t a t e s . The timber is hard, heavy and durable, the acorns sweet and sought for by wild pigeons, etc. " A l m o s t u n k n o w n in the n o r t h e r n p a r t of t h e s t a t e . " — V a s e y . macrocarpa, Bur Oak, Over-cup or Mossy-cup Oak, native, L a p h a m . E n u m e r a t e d in fifteen counties by t h e geological survey, and no doubt found t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t a t e . In t h e n o r t h e r n counties it is an upland tree, however, while in t h e southern it is confined so far as I have seen to t h e bottom lands. A like fact is noticed by Swallow, thnt " t h e r e is a zone in north Missouri t h r o u g h o u t which it is found a b u n d a n t ly on the hills, seeming to u s u r p the place of the white o a k . ' ' I suppose it is a question of drainage. An over-cup, Wabash county, according to Mr. Ridg-eway, measured 163 feet in height, its t r u n k 79 feet, and its girth 21. A tree measured by Prof. Swallow, in Howard county, Mo., was 125 feet high and 20 in g i r t h . I t is a large, handsome, valuable t r e e . Well authenticated hybrids of two, alba, L., and macrocarpa, Michx, are known in Menard and Winnebago counties. var. lyrata, Walt, Union county, Vasey; Wabash Schneck. bicolor, Swamp White Oak, native, Lapham. The geological survey reports it in sevent e e n counties in various p a r t s of t h e state. Is found t h r o u g h o u t the s t a t e on low lands, according- to Bryant, and r a n k s n e x t to the white oaks in value for t i m b e r . prinus, Swamp Chestnut Oak, native, L a p h a m . " T h e swamp chestnut oak, Mr. L a p h a m found n e a r Janesville, Wis., which is not far from our northern state l i n e . ' ' — Brendel. Dr. Worden thought he identified this t r e e in Madison county. v a r . monticola. Bock Chestnut Oak, native, L a p h a m ; Madison county, Brendel. P r o fessor Swallow measured this oak in Mississippi county, Mo., 110 feet high and 18 feet girth. var. acuminata, Yellow Cliestnut Oak, native, L a p h a m ; Menard, Sangamon and Madison counties, V a s e y ; Peoria Tazewell, Cook and Winnebago counties. Brendel. One h u n d r e d feet high and 20 feet in girth in Howard county, Mo Swallow. The above species and its varieties are all of good size, and their t i m b e r valuable. Their botanical n o m e n c l a t u r e mixed. phellos, Willow Oak, native, Massac; g-eological report, \ r ol. 1, Wabash valley and county, rare,*- Ridgeway. Found also " i n t h e rich bottoms of southeast Missouri " says Professor Swallow, who measured one in New Madrid county 100 feet high and 9 feet in girth. iinbricana, Laurel or Shingle Oak, pine oak of some sections, native, L a p h a m . Mentioned in nine southern and central counties by Geological Survey. Brendel says this t r e e is not found in L a p h a m ' s Wisconsin list, and thinks it is wanting in Cook and Winnebago counties. F r o m Joliet southward, P a t t e r s o n . nigra, Black-Jack or Barren Oak, native, L a p h a m ; Johnson, P e r r y , Clinton and Morgan, Geological Survey. " G r o w i n g in St. Clair Marion and Menard counties. Seems to have its northern limits in Middle Illinois."—Brendel; n e a r Chicago, B a b cock. triloba, Michx. Union county, Wolf. leanna, N u t t . This is probably a hybrid between Q. imbricana and Q. n i g r a . It occurs in Peoria county, Brendel; Fulton, Wolf; in Southern Illinois, Forbes." falcata, Spanish Oak, native, Vasey; Hardin, Johnson, Pulaski, Massac, Pope, Alexander, Geological Survey; Wabash county, Ridgeway; (150 feet high, 75 feet to a limb, and 20 feet in circumference). Ninety feet high, 26 feet in girth in New Madrid county Mo., Swallow. coccinea, Scarlet Oak, native, L a p h a m ; Champaign. var. tinctoria quercitron, Yellow-Barked or Black Oak, native, L a p h a m ; " G r o w e v e rywhere in t h e woods of Illinois."—Brendel. rubra, Red Oak, native, L a p h a m ; Champaign county, Macauley. " O n e of t h e most common species in the woods of Illinois."—Bryant. palustris, Swamp, Spanish or Pin Oak, native, L a p h a m ; Madison, Hardin, Johnson, Massac, Pope, Jackson, Marion, Jefferson and Fulton counties, Geological R e p o r t . Champaign county.